At any time or at any age musculoskeletal injuries can occur.

Injuries: whether from sports or life activities
  1. Sprains – ligament tears (ACL, PCL, MCL, LCL)
  2. Strains – Muscle\Tendon tears or ruptures (quad, patellar or Achilles tendons)
  3. Fractures – Tibia, femur, fibula, growth plates
  4. Cartilage or meniscus tears
Signs and Symptoms:
  1. Pain – Constant or intermittent
  2. Swelling – immediate or progressing slowly
  3. Instability – giving our or bucking causing loss of balance
  4. Catching, locking or snapping – whether constant or positional
Treatment Options:
  1. Conservative:
    1. Medications to reduce pain + Swelling
    2. Physical therapy – to stretch, strengthen & relieve symptoms
    3. Bracing – to help stability or improve joint alignment
    4. Splinting or casting to prevent movement or allow proper healing
    5. Regrowth techniques for small defects in articular cartilage can stimulate new growth
  2. Surgical:
    1. Reconstruct ligaments or repair for return to normal activities or sports
    2. Repair tendons or reattach for better strength and normal function
    3. Repair meniscal tears or remove frayed or torn pieces
    4. Surgical reduce fractures to proper alignment followed by splinting or internal fixation with specialized plates and screws
Osteoarthritis or Rheumatoid Arthritis can be extremely painful and have many possible explanations


  1. Overuse which wears out the cushioning within the knee
  2. Old sport or new sport injuries which damage articular cartilage
  3. Genetics or family history of arthritis can be passed on to relatives
  4. Autoimmune disease that effects the normal joint function
  5. Weight and diet can contribute to early arthritic changes

Sign and Symptoms:

  1. Pain with movement or at rest, difficulty sleeping due to pain
  2. Swelling which may be chronic & increase with activity
  3. Loss of function, strength, and motion
  4. Stiffness with pain in the morning after waking or when sitting for long periods of time followed by movement
Joint noise caused by irregular surfaces within the joint

Treatment Options:

  1. Conservative
    1. Medication – which constantly change helping manage pain and swelling
    2. Physical therapy – to reduce inflammation, pain & improve function
    3. Braces or splints for support or unloading joints
    4. Steroid injections for longer relief and at times faster benefits
    5. Lubrication injections with hyloronate cab be beneficial
    6. Supplementation & diet for joint health or weight loss
  2. Surgical
    1. Total knee replacements using the latest technology and parts for joint resurfacing
    2. Partial joint replacement if only 1/3 of the joint is affected
    3. Regrowth techniques for small areas to grow new cartilage
    4. Arthroscopy if damage is small or superficial can reduce pain and symptoms

Knee Procedures:

  • Total Knee Replacements (Gender specific, Mobile & Fixed)
  • Arthroscopic ACL & PCL reconstruction
  • Meniscal repair
  • Menisectomy
  • Medial Patella Femoral Ligament Reconstruction
  • Repair Articular Cartilage Damage (DeNovo procedure)
  • Platelet Rich Plasma [PRP] Injections (Read more about this procedure)
  • Fracture repair & reconstruction
  • Dislocation reconstructions
  • DeNovo procedure

Learn about common Knee Procedures

Please visit our links page to find more information.

Learn about common Knee Conditions

Anatomy of the Knee

The knee is the body's largest joint. It's the place where three bones meet: the tibia, the femur and the patella. The knee is a "hinge" joint. It allows the leg to bend in one direction only. Let's take a closer look at the main parts of the knee's anatomy.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear (ACL Tear)

This injury is a tearing of the ACL ligament in the knee joint. The ACL ligament is one of the bands of tissue that connects the femur to the tibia. An ACL tear can be painful. It can cause the knee to become unstable.

Fractures of the Tibial Spine

This condition is a fracture of a portion of the tibia, also called the shin bone, in the knee joint. The tibial spine is a specialized ridge of bone in the tibia where the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) attaches. This ligament is important in maintaining flexibility and stability in the knee.

Goosefoot (Pes Anserine) Bursitis of the Knee

This condition is an inflammation of  the pes anserine bursa, a fluid-filled sac between the tibia and the tendons of the hamstring muscle on the inner side of the knee. It can cause pain and restrict motion of the knee.

Meniscus Tear

This is a common injury of the knee. Your knee joint is cushioned by two c-shaped wedges of cartilage called the "menisci." Each individual cushion is called a "meniscus." This injury is a tear of one of these cushions.

Patella Fracture (Broken Knee Cap)

This condition is a crack or fracture of the patella, the bone on the front of the knee that covers the knee joint. The patella helps to protect the joint as well as provide strength and stability.

Patella Tendon Rupture

This condition occurs when the tendon that holds the patella, (the knee cap), to the tibia tears and splits apart, allowing the patella to slide upward. This causes pain and an inability to straighten the knee.

Patellar Tendonitis (Jumper's Knee)

This condition is an inflammation of the tendon that connects the patella (the kneecap) to the tibia in the knee joint. This tendon is part of the structure of muscles and tendons in the knee that allows the knee to straighten from being bent.

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (Runner's Knee)

This condition is an irritation of the cartilage on the back of the patella (the kneecap) that causes pain in one or both knees.

Prepatellar Bursitis (Kneecap Bursitis)

This condition is an inflammation of the prepatellar bursa, a fluid-filled sac that covers the front of the kneecap. Prepatellar bursitis results in pain and swelling at the front of the knee.

Shin Splints (Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome)

This condition is a painful swelling, usually along the front of the lower leg, that is common among runners and other athletes.

Torn Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)

This condition occurs when the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), a band of tissue that connects the femur to the tibia inside the knee joint, becomes torn or worn away. A torn PCL causes pain and instability of the knee.